Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)
An Intravenous Pyelogram examination is designed to test the function and examine the anatomy of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. It is typically ordered for people who have known kidney stones or who are complaining of symptoms that are felt by their physicians to be suspicious for kidney stones (such as flank pain). Another common reason for ordering and performing this test is for the evaluation of hematuria (blood in urine).
Cystography & Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG)
Cystography is a diagnostic procedure that uses x-rays to examine the urinary bladder.
During cystography, contrast dye is injected into the bladder. Contrast refers to a substance taken into the body that causes the particular organ or tissue under study to be seen more clearly. X-rays are taken of the bladder, and fluoroscopy may be used to study the bladder emptying while a person urinates (voiding cystography). Cystography may indicate how well the bladder empties during urination and whether any urine backs up into the kidneys (vesicoureteral reflux).
Retrograde Urethrography (RUG)
RUG is performed when urethral trauma is suspected. A contrast agent is injected retrograde into the urethra; the exam is helpful in diagnosing urethral stricture.
This exam evaluates a female patient’s fallopian tubes, and any uterine abnormalities. A narrow, flexible catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus. An x-ray contrast is injected through the catheter while a series of radiographs are taken.